human trafficking statistics australia

As a result of the findings of the state of Victoria’s “Inquiry into the Labour Hire Industry and Insecure Work”, the Victorian government introduced the Labour Hire Licensing Bill 2017 in December 2017, seeking to protect labour hire workers from being exploited and underpaid. Through a suite of reforms in 2013, the Australian government expanded these offences to include non-sexual forms of exploitation and created a standalone offence for forced labour, forced marriage, and organ trafficking. “Ever since UNODC started collecting statistics on human trafficking 15 years ago, women and girls have consistently represented the majority of reported victims,” says Zoi Sakelliadou, a UNODC Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Officer, who coordinated the development of … ‘Malaysian woman living in Australia jailed for trafficking friend to work as prostitute’ 2017. Human Trafficking is different to People Smuggling: 1. The UK Modern Slavery Act Research project employs a crowdsourcing approach to reviewing and assessing the statements housed on the BHRRC platform, recognising the value of having a fully transparent platform, but also the enormous amount of time and resources it would take to conduct this analysis. An effective approach to eliminating slavery in all of its forms places the needs, experiences and human rights of vulnerable workers at the centre of its approach. Low-skilled temporary migrant workers are vulnerable to forced labour exploitation, starting with exploitation by those who facilitate their journey to Australia.44 The charging of fees by migration agents or labour brokers (on- and offshore) who organise visas or jobs for potential migrants is common and may mean that migrants arrive in Australia with large debts that need to be repaid.45 Cases of “rogue” labour hire companies that are often part of an opaque sub-contracting network exploiting vulnerable workers have been reported.46 This includes underpayment, non-payment of entitlements, such as leave or superannuation, and sub-standard accommodation in industries such as agriculture,47 meat processing,48 and construction.49, Once migrant workers have arrived in Australia, cultural and language barriers, limited knowledge of workplace laws and standards in Australia, and the reliance on employers who sponsor their temporary visas can further make them susceptible to modern slavery.50 Financial difficulties exacerbated by restricted work entitlements, the temporary nature and type of work, and a general fear of authorities due to risks associated with non-compliance of visa requirements contribute to vulnerability.51 For example, workers in the government-run Seasonal Worker Programme (SWP) are dependent on their employers who sponsor their visas to come over to Australia, thus increasing worker’s vulnerability to abuse.52 Although the program requires employers to be approved by the Australian government, recent reports have revealed exploitation, including severe underpayment, substandard accommodation, unfair wage deductions, long working hours, and lack of health care access.53 The recent case of a Tongan national who fell ill and died in the hostel where he was staying while picking fruit on a farm is currently being investigated by the Queensland coroner.54, Domestic workers in both diplomatic and non-diplomatic households are highly vulnerable to modern slavery due to the hidden nature of their work and the power imbalance between the worker and the employer, which reinforces the employer’s ability to exploit and abuse their domestic workers.55 In the case of domestic workers in diplomatic households, the power imbalance is particularly prominent due to the employer’s high social status which also acts as a disincentive for the domestic worker to take action to change his or her situation.56 Diplomatic immunity further complicates any attempts to investigate cases of forced labour.57 Additionally, the majority of domestic servitude victims reportedly do not come to Australia through a formal visa program, instead entering on tourist visas or other visa categories that are not subject to employer compliance monitoring. [9, http://www5.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MelbULawRw/2013/5.html, http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/committees/reportjnt/024102/toc_pdf/HiddeninPlainSight.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf, https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/bill/files/3488/Passed%20by%20both%20Houses.pdf, https://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/labour-relations/ministerial-review-state-industrial-relations-system, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/contents/enacted, https://www.modernslaveryregistry.org/explore?countries%5B%5D=1473&company_name=&legislation_UK+Modern+Slavery+Act=yes, https://www.judcom.nsw.gov.au/publications/benchbks/sentencing/fines.html, Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Ghana, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand. Those that enter Australia on a formal domestic worker visa program are generally tied to their employer through their visa which can also increase risk of exploitation.58, Young people aged between 16 to 18 years are the most at risk of child, early, or forced marriage in Australia, with most cases involving family members.59 Current policy responses to forced marriage have grown out of the national anti-trafficking response in Australia, which place an emphasis on criminal justice. Globally, there are two general categories of human trafficking: sex trafficking and labor trafficking. To date, over 400 statements have been assessed by university students at Columbia University, ESCP Europe Business School, Johns Hopkins University, University of Nottingham, and the University of Western Australia. A Queensland couple are charged with human trafficking after allegedly keeping a Fijian woman as a servant. The scheme will be run by an independent Labour Hire Licensing Authority which will monitor compliance with the scheme.81 At the time of writing, the bill had passed the First House (Legislative Assembly).82 The state of Queensland passed the Labour Hire Licensing Act 2017 in September 2017. These situations involved 22,326 individual survivors; nearly 4,384 traffickers and 1,912 suspicious businesses. About half of convicted human traffickers in recent years in Australia are women, with a high proportion of those having been victims of trafficking themselves, according to new research. Available from: Bali Process Government and Business Forum 2017, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of, https://wikirate.org/UK_Modern_Slavery_Act_Research, http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/rr/002/rr002.pdf. The Modern Slavery Act has the potential to be a significant piece of legislation that will combat and prevent human trafficking and slavery within Australia and overseas. Amendments to the Criminal Code were made in 2005 to implement the Protocol. Since 1999, the Australian government has strengthened law enforcement tools to investigate and prosecute these cromes. In November 2015, the passing of the Crimes Legislation Amendment Powers, Offences and Other Measures) Act 2015 further strengthened the offence of forced marriage, which was first introduced in 2013.61 The amendments reflect the understanding and interpretation of forced marriage as a slavery-like practice, expanding the definition to include circumstances in which one or both parties do not freely and fully consent to the marriage because he or she is incapable of understanding the effect and nature of a marriage ceremony, for reasons such as age or mental capacity. The legislation also has the potential to substantially improve the lives of the men, women and children who have experienced human trafficking and slavery in Australia. 1 penalty unit is currently set at AU$110 in New South Wales. This will contribute to an environment where slavery, slavery-like practices, human trafficking, debt bondage and exploitation in many industries can flourish. While most of the individuals identified are in registered brothels, there are reports of Indigenous and migrant women and girls being trafficked for sex in informal settings across regional and remote Australia.33, Early and forced marriage has been noted as a growing concern in Australia. Human traffickingis the physical movement of people across and within borders through deceptive means, force or coercion. Trafficking is a relatively high profit, low-risk crime. Therefore, the most recent available figures are those for financial year 2015/16. Australia is well known as a destination country for victims of trafficking, particularly people from Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines and Korea. See https://wikirate.org/Wesfarmers_Limited?filter%5Bmetric_value%5D=all&filter%5Bproject%5D=UK+Modern+Slavery+Act+Research for more details. Similar to the proposed bill in Victoria, the Act establishes a mandatory labour hire licensing scheme for operators in Queensland to protect labour hire workers from exploitation. Thailand in particular has faced allegations of trafficking and forced labour in its fishing industry in recent years.40 Rice from India and cocoa from Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana are two other at-risk products which Australia imports at a considerable value. Don't miss out on the latest ACRATH news. National Children’s and Youth Law Centre 2013. queensland 6:48pm Apr 10, 2019 Firearm parts destined for bikies seized The next report by the Interdepartmental Committee on Human Trafficking and Slavery was due to be published in December 2017 but had not yet been released at the time of writing. For more information, please refer to the Ministerial Review of the State industrial relations system website, Available from: Knaus, C 2018, ‘Revoke diplomatic immunity if officials mistreat domestic staff – unions’. Milligan, L 2018, ‘Domestic workers inside Canberra embassies kept in conditions likened to ‘slavery’’. Once it has received Royal Assent, the bill will amend the Fair Work Act 2009 to impose stricter penalties on fraudulent employers and to extend the powers of the Fair Work Ombudsman to investigate and gather evidence of potential workplace breaches.71 While the Act was supported by unions and NGOs, it was regarded as falling short of adding additional protections for workers and whistle blowers, which would further incentivise the reporting of workplace violations.72 The new provisions target growing concerns in the Australian community about the exploitation of vulnerable workers, particularly migrant workers and workers in the franchise sector.73 In October 2016, the Australian government established a cross-agency “Migrant Workers’ Taskforce” as part of the government’s commitment to tackle the exploitation of vulnerable migrant workers.74, In most Australian states and territories, domestic workers, including migrant domestic workers, are covered by the Fair Work Act. See www.wikirate.org. In March 2013, then Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced a new government strategy to revise the Commonwealth’s procurement arrangements and guidelines to ensure they assist in identifying and addressing slavery in supply chains.85 The subsequent Abbott government expressed support for this idea but to do date it is unclear what action has been taken to progress this.86 In March 2017 the Australian government published the new Commonwealth Procurement Rules (CPRs) which replaced the 2014 version.87 One of the new amendments in the 2017 CPRs is Clause 10.18, which requires that officials must make reasonable enquiries to consider the tenderer’s practices regarding labour regulations and ethical employment practices.88 However, the new clause does not specifically mention modern slavery or human trafficking. The legislation states that statements may include details on the organisation’s structure, its due diligence processes, any risks related to modern slavery, and any training available to employees. This is supported by the fact that so far, most identified cases of modern slavery in Australia have involved migrants, although Australian citizens have also experienced exploitation. ‘Without Consent: Forced Marriage in Australia’. In September 2005, Australia ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, which supplemented the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), United Nations Office on Drugs & Crime (UNODC), https://www.afp.gov.au/what-we-do/crime-types/human-trafficking, https://www.homeaffairs.gov.au/about/crime/human-trafficking, https://www.dss.gov.au/our-responsibilities/women/programs-services/reducing-violence/anti-human-trafficking-strategy. The new legislation will commence on 16 April 2018.83 Similarly, the South Australian government also passed the Labour Hire Licensing Bill 2017, which is awaiting assent at the time of writing.84 The new state schemes clearly show the shift in prevailing attitudes about labour hire and that support for a nationally harmonised scheme has grown considerably. Ensure exploited workers in diplomatic households have safe and supported means to escape by establishing mandatory orientation sessions and subsequent health and welfare checks as a means to monitor the working conditions of those domestic workers. Victorian Legislation and Parliamentary Documents 2017. Human trafficking is a devastating criminal atrocity that forcefully deprives a person of their freedom for the material benefit of another. Ensure victims of forced labour exploitation are identified by providing training and resources to labour inspectors, law enforcement and other frontline bodies. That is not to say that sex trafficking is not an issue in Australia. The threshold is lower than the AU$100 million proposed by the national legislation. Under the amended definition, a person under the age of 16 is presumed to be incapable of understanding the nature and effect of a marriage ceremony. Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, 2017. ‘ Indian cook wins $ 200,000, kept as slave at Sydney restaurant ’ offences! Be found on the latest ACRATH news slave at Sydney restaurant ’ that sex trafficking statistics reveal that human will! 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